In order to restore the physiology of the nasal cavity, surgery is often used, the result of which is the correction of the nasal septum. Otolaryngologists refer large numbers of their patients first for an x-ray examination and then for surgery. The problem of nasal septum curvature is very common, but not as trivial as many think. People who let such a situation take its course are more likely than others to suffer from sinusitis, sinusitis, resulting in lack of oxygen and impaired metabolic process in the body.
Causes of curvature
There are only 3 main reasons for this problem - genetic, compensatory or traumatic. Most often, doctors are faced with the genetic causes of curvature of the nasal septum - an abnormal structure of the nasal cavity can develop due to poor intrauterine development of a person.
This is manifested by the displacement or deformation of the bone or cartilage tissue in this area, the appearance of ridge-shaped protrusions, the fusion of certain types of tissue, etc.
Traumatic causes are also common in our time, which by their nature can occur in many athletes, military personnel, and other categories of people who, professionally (or otherwise), are at risk for nose fractures.
Mechanical actions injure the nose (it is not even necessary to break it in this case), the nasal septum is displaced, reducing the internal cavity to one side. This situation is more dangerous in adolescence, when bone and cartilage tissue is actively developing. Under the compensatory causes of the curvature of the nasal septum, experts understand the process of the growth of adenoids, the appearance of polyps in the nose, frequent swelling of rhinitis, as well as the placement of piercings or dumbbellsin the nose.
What is the operation for?
If rhinoplasty is purely aesthetic and cosmetic in nature and affects only the external factor, then the nasal septum correction operation has a long list of medical prescriptions.
Such surgery can correct the shape of the nose, but first of all it is necessary to restore the health of the organ, and not its beauty.
If such an operation is not performed in time, serious health complications can occur, including:
- violation of the correctness of nasal breathing, which results in the fact that it is difficult for a person to inhale air through the nose;
- disturbance in the nasal cavity of air dynamics; impaired protective functions of the mucous membrane;
- the appearance of a lack of oxygen in the body; the occurrence of sneezing, spasms in the larynx and other reflex disorders;
- frequent migraines;
- the appearance of a somatic cough.
Indications and contraindications for surgery
The operation to correct the curvature of the nasal septum is carried out after a comprehensive examination of the patient. To begin such an examination, the doctor must analyze the oral complaints that he can hear from the patient.
For example, you can think of such a diagnosis in case of frequent rhinitis or sinusitis, blockage of the function of one of the patient's nostrils, a change in the shape of the nose, the occurrence of nosebleeds, allergic reactionsfrequent and snoring at night. With two or more similar complaints, fluoroscopy is prescribed, with the help of which the diagnosis is confirmed or refuted. The x-ray image will visualize the nature of the deformity, as well as its type and shape.
Upon receipt of this information, the specialist can determine which operation should be performed in this particular case. Sometimes the diagnosis is made with the help of rhinoscopy without the use of x-rays.
The main indications for surgery to correct the nasal septum are pronounced deformities, internal cysts, aneurysms in this area, even patient complaints about a sharp deterioration in well-being. Also, surgery will be an alteration in metabolism, which has occurred due to lack of oxygen, often endured sinusitis, rhinitis, difficulty breathing through the nose, and the transitiontowards mouth breathing.
All the symptoms and diseases of the upper respiratory tract in case of curvature of the nasal septum are very closely related to each other.
Difficulty breathing is caused by the narrowing of the nasal space, which also increases the likelihood of bacteria entering the nasal passages. Because of this, people with sinusitis, rhinitis and other diseases in this area, more often than others, suffer from severe sinusitis, which turns into a chronic stage. All of the above diseases cause painful sensations in the head and upper part of the face. These symptoms are the reason for immediate consultation with a doctor.
With resections of the pituitary tumor, it is also possible to perform operations to restore the nasal septum. This becomes possible through the use of transseptal transphenoidal access. Surgery of this nature is also performed in cosmetic rhinoplasty, since in this case there is a need for donor cartilage, the source of which may be the nasal septum.
There are not too many contraindications for such a surgical intervention. You cannot perform such an operation on pregnant women, nursing mothers with type 1 or 2 diabetes mellitus, with cancer, in old age.
It is also impossible to perform an operation with too much perforation of the septum, dependence on cocaine, Wegener's granulomatosis, malignant lymphomas and proliferation of T and B cells. In this case, you can consult a doctor on thecorrection of the nasal septum using a laser.
Varieties of surgical procedures
If a severe curvature of the nasal septum is detected, surgery is recommended as soon as possible. This will determine the general well-being and state of health of the patient in the future. In this case, the operation can be performed in two ways: by submucosal resection or by endoscopic septoplasty.
The classic technique for correcting the nasal septum is submucosal resection. In this case, the surgeon makes a small arched incision in the front of the septal cartilage, dissects the mucous membrane, and then the curved cartilage. Then the cartilage is separated from the perichondrium using a special tool, the parts to be corrected are removed, while the upper level of the cartilage is not affected.
The bony septum is removed with the help of special instruments, the upper layer of the mucous membrane, periosteum and perichondrium is fixed and fixed with cotton swabs. During this operation, no stitches will be applied to the face due to the capacity for rapid regeneration of the operated tissues.
A deformed nasal septum can be healed in a gentler way - with the help of endoscopic septoplasty.
This modern technique, using an intranasal endoscope, diagnoses deformed areas, their nature, and helps to remove anything that is not needed through micro-incisions of the mucous membrane. Combined with an endoscope, this technique involves the use of microsurgical instruments, as well as a computer screen, which displays the entire progress of the operation.
In modern medicine, they prefer to use the second surgical method, although both are very effective. Endoscopy helps prevent an increase in trauma, complications and promotes early restoration of all nasal functions.
As complications and side effects of any type of intervention, hemorrhages occurring inside the nasal mucosa, bleeding, abscesses, abscesses and purulent sinusitis and deformity are also possible.
During the short postoperative period, it is necessary to wear turundas for support and recovery, as well as a gauze fixation bandage in the nasal area. The patient can only breathe through the mouth, until the fourth or fifth day, when nasal breathing is able to recover.
During the entire period after the operation, the specialist monitors the patient, removes scabs of blood, rinses the nose. Often, doctors will prescribe pain relievers for patients, as the nose can hurt. If there is a risk of wound infection, antibiotics are given. After the patient is discharged from the hospital, they will need to be monitored weekly by an otolaryngologist to monitor the progress of wound healing and restore the health of the nose. At the same time, until the doctor's special order, you can not engage in physical activity and eat pepper.
In addition to two surgical techniques for restoring the nasal septum, there is also a laser technique for non-surgical intervention. With laser septoplasty, when the mucous membrane is cut, the vessels are stuck together, so there is no need to apply sutures after such treatment. After this therapy, it is not necessary to stay in the hospital, the operation itself is performed on an outpatient basis under local anesthesia. One hour after the laser correction, the patient can leave the walls of the hospital.